## Pokhara University | Old is Gold

Question Paper of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Year: 2068 (2012) | Level: Bachelor (Computer Engineering)

Semester – Fall (Eight) | Programme: Bachelor of Engineering (BE)

Course: Artificial Intelligence

Pass Marks: 45 | Full Marks: 100 | Time : 3hrs.

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

**Attempt all the questions.**

- a) Explain Turing test. Machine can be made intelligent artificially but ultimately human make the machines. So who is more intelligent – the artificial machine or the person? Discuss. [4 + 4]

b) In a crypto-arithmetic puzzle, the variable A, B, C, D, E and F can take values from 1 to 7. The variables must all be different and, when taken as digits, they must satisfy the following sum. Solve the following problem as CSP. [7]

- a) Explain production systems with the help of 8-puzzle example.[8]

b) What are the problems that may arise in hill climbing searching? How they can be handled? Explain.[4 + 3]

OR

a) You are given two jugs, a 4 liters gallon one and a 3 liters gallon one. Neither have any measuring markers on it. There is a pump that can be used to fill the jugs with water. How can you get exactly 2 liters of water into the 4 liters gallon jug? Solve this problem with state space representation. [8]

b) Explain Min-Max search strategy with example. [7] - a) What is meaning of word heuristics in the context of search strategies? What conditions on A* search is required to guarantee completeness and optimality. [3 + 4]

b) What are the different dimensions of search strategy? Compare the BFS and DFS with different dimension. [4 + 4] - a) The logical operator “←
**→**” is read “if and only if”. P ← → Q is defined as being equivalent to (P → Q) ^ (Q → P). Based on this definition, show that P ← → Q is logically equivalent to (P VQ) → (P ^ Q) using truth table. [7]

b)Represent the following using first order Logic. [2 + 6]

i) Prasant likes easy courses.

ii) Science courses are hard.

iii) All the courses in the computer departments are easy.

iv) AI is a computer course.

Also, use resolution to answer the question, “What course would Prasant like?”

OR

a) Prove that “ jeevan is happy” with the help of following facts expressed in CNF. [8]

i. ¬pass(X,history) V ¬win(X,lottery) V happy(X)

ii. ¬study(X) V pass(Y,Z) ¬lucky(W) V pass(W,U)

iii. ¬study(jeevan) lucky(jeevan)

iv. ¬lucky(U) V win(U,lottery)

b) Explain with Example, how first order logic sentences are converted into conjunctive normal form (CNF). [7] - a) How can you say FOPL extend the expressiveness of PL? [5]

b) Explain the forward and backward representational mapping with diagram. [5]

c) Explain Semantic Network with suitable example. [5] - a) Explain the basic components of expert system. How can we make expert system knowledge base reusable? [4 + 4]

b) What do you mean by learning by analogy? Explain derivational analogy. [3 + 4] - Write short notes on any two: [ 2 X 5 = 10]

a) Bayesian Network

b) Frames

c) Machine vision