Causes and Consequences of Deforestation - Economics Notes Grade XI

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Causes and Consequences of Deforestation - Economics Notes Grade XI

Causes and Consequences of Deforestation

Causes of Deforestation
Deforestation is the process of destroying the forest area day to day in the country; it means a reduction in forest area for many purposes. The forest area of Nepal was 45.6 % of the total land area in 2021 B.S. Now, it gradually decreases and limited about to 39.6 %. So, deforestation has become a great challenge in developing countries like Nepal. There are several reasons behind rapid deforestation in Nepal which are as follows:

1. Rapid Population Growth.
The population of Nepal is increasing rapidly with 1.4 % per annum. It leads to an increase in the demand for more things to eat, places to live, source of income and employment. Due to these reasons, the deforestation in Nepal has been very high during the last 4 decades.

2. Migration.
Due to various pulling factors, people are migrating towards the Terai region, from hills and mountains; they destroy the forest for the purpose of settlement as well as cultivation.

3. Demand for raw materials.
Forest-based industries, such as paper, herbal; furniture, etc. collect raw materials from the forest. The collection of raw materials from the forest leads to deforestation in Nepal.

4. Illegal trade.
Nepal has an open border to India. The supply of timber as well as other important trees I encouraged by corrupted forest officials for their benefit. As a result, forest resources of Nepal are gradually decreasing.

5. Uneducated People.
Uneducated People are not aware of the future problems of a landslide, rainfall, fodder, firewood, etc. They cut down trees without any fear. Due to the reasons, there is a rapid deforestation in Nepal.

6. Defective government policy.
There is no suitable policy for the preservation and development of forest resources. There is a lack of people’s participation in afforestation and preservation programmes. Even the existing government policies are not implemented effectively.

There are other causes of deforestation such as lack of employment opportunity, political region, high dependency on agriculture, the major source of firewood, etc.

Consequences of Deforestation
Deforestation has serious effects on the ecological and economic condition of the country. The decreasing situation of forest resource has various types of negative effects in the economy which are as follows:

1. Environmental deterioration.
Deforestation adversely affects on the environment of an economy. It affects climate, rainfall pattern and causes floods, soil erosion, landslide, etc.

2. Danger for wildlife and plants.
Forest is only the residence of all wild animals various types of herbs and plants are grown in the forest. Deforestation destroys all these animals and plants.

3. Decline in underground water.
The forest resource helps to maintain underground water by absorbing water from its roots. So, the more the forest is destroyed the more will be the decrease in the level of underground water. Due to the decline in underground water, people face a shortage of water.

4. Effects on tourism.
Deforestation destroys the natural beauty and climate of the country. Similarly, it destroys the rare animals, birds and other natural attraction of the forest. Due to these reasons, we never think that the development of tourism sector in the country.

5. Lack of raw materials for industries.
Most of the industries in Nepal are forest-based industries, they require woods, herbal plants, etc. for their raw materials, but these raw materials are being lacked with the increase of deforestation.

6. Decline in government revenue.
Due to the deforestation, the forest-based industries can’t get enough raw material, reduces the export products, number of tourists, etc. Such activities decrease government revenue.

There are other consequences of deforestation such as a decline in grazing land, decrease in employment, shortage of firewood, decline of the fertility of the soil, etc.

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