Environmental and Natural Resource Management For Sustainable Development - Economics Notes Grade XI

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Environmental and Natural Resource Management For Sustainable Development - Economics Notes Grade XI

Environmental and Natural Resource Management For Sustainable Development

Environmental and Natural Resource Management For Sustainable Development:
The environment is the collective form of natural resources or a set of surroundings, which enhance living and non-living. There is a close relationship between environment and development. Environment plays a protective role in the survival of humanity. But rapid economic development leads to urbanization and environmental pollution. The maximum proper utilization of natural resources accelerates economic growth. The economic development with environmental balance and proper management of natural resources is the long run aim of economic development.

Consequences of Environmental Mismanagement Environmental Pollution
The growing environmental pollution has caused adverse effects in our environment. Environmental pollution has serious effects on human health and productivity. The major consequences are:

1. Deforestation:
There is growing deforestation in Nepal. As a result of deforestation, natural disasters like flood, landslide, drought, etc. and increases diseases and mortality rate. Similarly, it decreases the pure air, water, and destruction of the habitat of wild animals and birds.

2. Air pollution:
It is mostly found in urban regions of Nepal. Air pollution from vehicles and industries is creating breathing related diseases: such as hypertension, lungs problem, etc. It adversely affects the working capacity of people.

3. Soil pollution:
The soil pollution in Nepal has been growing rapidly due to the unscientific use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture. It has increase acidity in the soil, reduced its fertility and accelerates the process of desertification in the country.

4. Water pollution:
Water resources are being polluted due to negligence. Water pollution harms human health. Due to water pollution, people are suffering from water-borne diseases like diarrhea, typhoid, etc.

5. Atmospheric change:
The unscientific use of available water, forest and mineral resources has resulted in many problems in the earth’s surface. There is ozone depletion which causes, different disease related to air.

6. Loss of biodiversity:
Environmental pollution reduces bio-diversity. A large variety of rare animals, birds, insects, and other creatures are being extinct. Due to the thesis, the ecosystem and environmental balance disturb, which negatively affects mankind in many ways.

7. Noise Pollution:
Growing noise pollution from the means of transportation and manufacturing industries in urban regions is one of the major problems of Nepal.

8. Low production:
Growing environmental pollution directly affects the life of human beings. Air pollution and water pollution affects the health condition of human beings. Weak human resources can’t produce more goods and services. As a result, there will be low production and productivity.

9. Reduce government revenue:
As the country becomes polluted and weakened in many ways. There will be low government income from various sectors.

10. Tourism industry:
Tourists visit those places where they enjoy their life. But due to air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution, no one would wish to visit the country. Therefore, if we can’t control these types of pollution in Nepal, it badly affects the Tourism industry.

The problem of Natural Resources Management
In spite of the importance of natural resources and environment, the environmental situation is degrading condition in Nepal. Government efforts are not achieving the required target. Various awareness programmes have been implemented to manage the environmental situation, but it has not been improved. There are different problems to manage the natural resources in Nepal which are as follows:

1. Lack of capital:
We need adequate capital to manage the existing natural resources. But Nepal is one of the poor countries is unable to manage natural resources.

2. Lack of technical manpower:
Development and management of natural resources, we need adequate skilled manpower of varied levels. But here is lack of technical manpower.

3. Lack of infrastructure:
Infrastructural development is the basic requirement for natural resource development. In Nepal, infrastructural facilities like transportation and communication, etc. are not adequate. So, we can’t properly use natural resources.

4. Unemployment:
The unemployment problem exists in the rural area of Nepal. Most of the farmers are not fully employed in the agricultural sector. There are not alternate opportunities besides agriculture. Hence, people are illegally misusing natural resources for extra income.

5. Lack of public awareness:
Most of the people are uneducated. They are not aware of the future problem caused by mismanagement of natural resources. So, they destroy natural resources for fulfilling the present need. Hence, the destruction of natural resources increasing day by day.

6. Defective government policy:
There is no suitable policy for the management of natural resources. The government of natural resources. The government’s policy has frequently changed and natural resources are not implemented properly. Illegal traders widely misuse natural resources. However, they are not punished in the right way due to political pressure.

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