Statistics: Techniques/Methods of Data Collection - Economics Notes Grade XI

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Statistics: Techniques/Methods of Data Collection

Techniques Methods of Data Collection.
There are two types of techniques of data collection:

1. Census:
A census is a technique of data collection where the information is collected from each and every unit of the population associated with the subject matter of enquiry. In Nepal, census occurs every ten years. In such census information about each and every individual of the country is collected. Not a single individual is left out in such a census.

Merits:
a) It gives complete information about the population.
b) This method is more suitable for a limited area.
Demerits:
a) It is more expensive, labour requiring and time-consuming.
b) This method is impossible if the population size is infinite.

2. Sampling method:
In this method, only the part of population units is selected as a representative of the whole population. The selected part of the units is called sample and the method of selecting a sample is called a sample method. The number of items in the sample is known as sample size. For example, 15 people are drawn from a population of 250 people from a village to know the drinking habits of those 15 people are the sample for the study.

Merits:
a) This method is less time consuming, less labour requiring and cheaper.
b) In the case of infinite population, it is a suitable method.
Demerits:
a) The sample units may not represent the population.
b) Due to the biases of the indicator, the result obtained may be misleading.

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