Methods and Approaches of Job Design

Human Resource Management

Methods and Approaches of Job Design

Methods and Approaches of job design:

There are various methods of job design. Some of them are explained below:

1. Scientific Management Approach: This method is suggested by F.W Taylor. Under this method, jobs are narrowly defined. The job is simplified by breaking down the job into tasks. This task specifies not only what is to be done, but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. This further helps in work specialization. Taylor suggested that, job should be designed first and then finding or fitting people to the job should be done next. He further argued that doing so; it not only decreases the cost of training and development but also motivates the people toward work. This approach is job oriented which can be used mostly in assembly line where same job are done repeatedly.

2. Herzberg’s Motivation –Hygiene Theory: This method is suggested by Frederick Herzberg. He and his associates found that people like to work in those organizations where two factors – hygiene and motivator are presents. Hygiene factors are pay, working condition (heating, lighting and ventilation), company policy and quality of supervision. These factor lead to an increase in productivity. Motivators are the feeling of self improvement, recognition, achievement and a desire for an acceptance of a greater responsibility. Presence of motivator factors motivates the employees and leads to job satisfaction. However, presence of hygiene factors in job not necessarily motivates the employees but absence causes dissatisfaction in the ob and lead to low productivity. Since, dissatisfaction can be minimized by providing adequate salary, improving working condition. However, motivate factors are totally related to job itself. Thus job should be designed in following ways. a.          Employees should be made more accountable for his/her job by delegating some authority.

  1. Individual are given opportunity to plan and schedule their own jobs.
  2. There should be as far as possible direct or face to face communication while working on that job.
  3. Work should design in such that the worker can consider doing his/her own things.
  4. Reward system should match the work performance.

3. Job Rotation: Job Rotation is the process of motivating employees by moving them from one job to another job for a shorter period of time. It is normally used to train different skills and techniques to the workers, so that one can work in different jobs at the time of urgency and scarcity. It also helps to avoid the boredom and frustration caused by similar and repetitive jobs.

4. Job Enlargement: Job Enlargement is the process of increasing the work load by adding the same nature of jobs or tasks into a job. E.g. the various tasks like operating camera, check sound, prepare lighting and report story can be added to video journalist job.

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