Selection Process and Test - Recruitment and Selection | Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management

Selection Process and Test

Selection:

In human resource planning we identified our personnel needs. Once these needs were established a job analysis was conducted, which clarified the characteristics of jobs being done and the individual qualities necessary to do these job successfully. This information was then used to recruit a pool of qualified applicants. And after the completion of recruitment process, selection of a right person for a job is started.  Selecting the right employees is important for three main reasons:
  1. The performance of selected employees affects the performance of others.
  2. There is always the involvement of high cost, in the recruitment and selection process.
  3. To secure the organization from wrong hiring viz. criminals, unqualified etc.

Selection is the process of choosing the best suitable candidates from eh pool of prospective employees for a vacant post. In other words, selection is the process of gathering information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired and who should be rejected.

According to DeCenzo and Robbins, “Selection activities predict which job applicant will be successful if hired in an organization.”

Similarly, according to Schmitt and Schneider, “selection is the process of gathering information for the purpose of evaluating and deciding who should be hired, under legal guideline, for the short and long-term interest of the individuals and the organization.”

Thus, selection is the process of carefully scrutinizing the information supplied by the prospective employees and identifying the best possible candidates for the current or future organizational undertakings.

Selection Process:

The selection process includes the following steps.

a. Application form evaluation: It is a first step of selection process in which the screening of application contents viz. personal background, qualification, work experience, expected salary, references etc is done. Under this unqualified application and application form with false information are rejected.

b. Preliminary Interviews: After applications are selected, preliminary interview is held to screen out the misfit and unqualified candidates physically. Usually it is short. It also helps the applicants to know about organization and actual job requirement.

c. Selection test: After preliminary interview, written test is administered for further examination. Basically, there are five types of test, they may conduct for selection. They are aptitude test (measure potential of individual to do work), Achievement test (measure skill or knowledge acquired), Situation test (measure the way an individual perform a job in different situation), vocational test (measure a candidate’s preference in different types of jobs) and personality test (measure the personal characteristics of candidates.

d. Selection Interview (final interview): Under this the in-depth conversation with the candidates on job related matters is conducted. It assess the candidates in following area:

  1. Ability to do the job and career goals.
  2. Motivation and enthusiasm to do job.
  3. Ability to fit in an organization.
  4. General Knowledge.

e. Reference Check: Under this, background information and character of the candidates is checked. Reference can contribute to the selection process if they are based on the facts and behaviour rather than an evaluation of candidates.

f. Physical Examination: Under this, the physical fitness of the candidates is examined. It helps to identify physical disability that may have internally and externally.

g. Final selection: After thorough analysis and examination of employees from different dimension, the candidates I selected for a job. Organization notifies the candidates who have been selected.

Selection Test:

A selection test is a systematic procedure for sampling human behaviour. In other words, selection test is a tool which facilitates and ascertains the expected behaviour from non expected behaviour of an individual.

A test is a set of questions, exercise of practical activities to measure someone’s skill, ability or knowledge. A selection test is tool which helps to identify the human behaviour acquired by an individual .Selection test must fulfill the following purpose:

  1. It should predict the future performance of an individual.
  2. It should diagnose the cause of particular behaviors.
  3. It should describe situational behaviour. The types of selection test are as follows:

a.  Aptitude test: Aptitude is a natural ability or skill, what a person acquires. Aptitude test normally used to measure the potential of individual to perform. It includes inductive (using known fact to produce general principles and deductive (using the knowledge and information you have in order to understand or form an opinion about something) reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory and numerical ability measurement.

b.  Achievement test: Achievement test measure what a person has learned. They measure an individual “job knowledge” in are like economics, marketing, personnel etc. E.g. measuring skills or knowledge that has been acquired during a training program is an achievement test.

c.  Situational test: Under this test, candidates are asked to respond to the situation specific problem. Reaction from the candidates is evaluated and proceeds for further selection procedures.

d.  Vocational test: It measures the candidate’s preference in different types of job. Since, each individual has distinct interest and perception related to the job, the test tires to identify the interest on the job requirements. Clearly, if we can select people whose interest are roughly the same as those of successful incumbents in the job for which they are recruiting, it is more likely that the applicant will be successful.

e.  Personality test: Personality test measures basic aspect of applicants. Personality, such as introversion (quiet or shy) extroversion (active, confident, enjoy spending time with others), stability and motivation etc. The usefulness of such test for selection rests on the assumption that we can fine a relationship between a measureable personality trait and success on the job.

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