Learning - Training and Development

Human Resource Management

Learning - Training and Development

Learning

Learning is a continuous interaction between individual and the particular social environment in which he/she function. In other words, learning is concerned with an increase in knowledge or expansion of existing skills.

According to Robbins and DeCenzo, “Learning is concerned with bringing about relatively permanent change as a result of experience”.

Factors that affect learning are:

  1. Active participation.
  2. Self efficacy.
  3. Proper feedback.
  4. Practice, practice and practice.

The principles of learning are:

  1. Principle of motivation.
  2. Principle of feedback.
  3. Principle of reinforcement.
  4. Principle of practice
  5. Principle of Transfer.

Process of Learning (Cognitive Theory):

According to this theory, learning is a cognitive (the part of mental function that deals with logic, as opposed to affective with deals with emotions) process. It includes the following steps:

a. Perceiving: perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment (Robbins 1997). So when, individual encounter with the stimulus, he/she perceives it either positive or negative as per his/her ability to evaluate the situation or things.

b. Imaging: Individual visualizes the positive and negative effect of the stimulus. He/ she make an image about the work procedures, its environment and its execution etc.

c. Thinking: Thinking is a way of identifying the solution for a problem. In other words, it is building the alternative for decision making.

d. Reasoning: Determining the cause and effect relation on those alternatives that has been identified. It is the way of deduction interpretation from the areas. (Specifying from general)

e. Decision making: Deciding the best alternative among others. This means, accepting the situation and change the attitude and behavior as per the requirements.

Significance of learning:

  1. To understand and predict behavior of people at work.
  2. To manage and work in diversity.
  3. To adapt to the change in technology.
  4. Total quality management.
  5. To facilitate organizational change and development.

Human Resource Development

Concept: HRD is a mechanism of building competent, committed, and loyal human resource in order to meet organizational challenges at present and in future. In other words, HRD is concerned with transforming an individual into organizational resource, which can be utilized to capitalize the opportunity and overall organizational development.

According to DeCenzo and Robbins, “Human resource development is concerned with preparing employees to work effectively and efficiently in an organization”.

Thus, HRD is the process of energizing the human potential through training and development, performance appraisal and career development program that can be used for organizational enhancement.

Importance of HRD:

  1. Develop skills and abilities.
  2. Facilitates career development.
  3. Increase employees’ commitment on the job.
  4. Improves decision making.
  5. Manage change and conflicts.
  6. Environmental adaptation.
  7. Link business strategy and employees’ performance.

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