Cell inclusions and Energy Flow - Cell Biology | Science Grade XI

Science Notes

Cell inclusions and Energy Flow - Cell Biology

Cell inclusions

Non-living substances embedded in cytoplasm are called cell inclusions. Such as proteins amino compounds, oil, cellulose, sugar etc are inclusions ergastic bodies.

Cell inclusions are divided into three categories they are Reserved materials.

Reserved materials:

The metabolic products stored inn plant cell forms the reserved materials. They are either nitrogenous compounds like proteins, amino acids or non nitrogenous compounds like starch cellulose, insulin, fats, oils, glycogen etc.

  • Secretory materials: Certain substances formed during plant metabolism but not concerned with nutrition. Such materials are called secretory materials. They are of following types
  • Plant pigments: the color producing substances of plants are plant pigments.
  • Enzymes or Hormones: These are nitrogenous secretory products and are soluble in water
  • Nectar: It is secreted by nectar secreting glands known as nectarines, which helps to attract the insect for pollination.

Excretory materials:

These are the by products of plant metabolisms and are of no use to the plants such as resins, gums, oils, organic acid, alkaloids, latex, tannins, inorganic compounds like urea caco3 and silica.

Energy flow: 

Cell utilizes energy either in the form of light or in the form of chemical (food). The cells of green plants absorb light energy and synthesize food but cells of animals absorb chemicals from the surrounding. The food absorbed by cells gets oxidized to release energy and energy is released and stored in eh form of ATP.

Flow of information:

The flow of information through a cell takes tow routes Intrinsic Information

The DNA forms RNA, the process is called transcription. The RNA forms proteins, the process is called translation. Then these proteins regulate al the cell activities.

DNA……>RNA........>Proteins.

Extrinsic information

Certain glands cell secretes hormones. These hormones can regulate al the cell activities. The hormones can be transmitted from one cell to other cell. For example insulin is produced in pancreas but control the activities of blood cell.

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