Changing Perspectives (Viewpoint) on Organization - Principle of Management

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Changing Perspectives (Viewpoint) on Organization

The changing Perspectives (Viewpoint) on Organization:

The organization is defined and viewed differently at different time period. Previously, it was only considered as a people gathering place where workers do what the employer asked them to do, there was no concerned about the relation of work and people performance. But as the time passes by, the concept of work, workers and workplace has been gradually changing. Organization is not only the gathering place, it is a place where people are embrace as an asset and help them to groom their abilities and make them competent to accept and overcome any environmental changes.

The changing perspectives on organization are as follows:

a. Mechanistic viewpoint on Organization: This perspective states that organization as a machine. Many classical theories of organization represent this view. It believes on fixed working hours, production schedules, maintenance schedules, financial control system, quality control system, sales targets, code of conduct, clear job description and procedures etc. The aim of these efforts is to routinize the activities and reduce uncertainty of operation. These types of organization ignore the human aspects and their effectiveness. It does not give priority to imagination, innovation and creativity. Thus, this perspective is suitable in stable environment and for those organizations where there is requirement of maximum blue collar workers.

b. Organization as an Open System: Business Organization are perceive as open adaptive system. Any organism can be considered as an energy system which has inputs, transformation process and outputs. E.g. the inputs for a university would be students, teaching materials, books, money and so on. The transformation process would consist of lectures, seminars, assignments, research, study, discussion, counseling etc. The output would be educated, cultured and discipline individuals ready to enter the real world of business or employment. In general, the term system is applied to any activity or any collection of facts, ideas or principles which are so arranged as to present a united a whole. All operation of system will be methodical, thorough and regular and above all as per plan to achieve set objectives. In business many division and departments are organized on functional bases and all act as coordinated whole to achieve the basic objectives of the firm.

A business organization as per open system: System V

c. Organization as political System: According to this perspective, organizations are viewed as “complex system of individual and coalitions, each having its own interest, beliefs, values, preferences, perspectives and perception. The coalitions continuously compete with each other  for scarce organizational resources”. It states that organizations are not about hierarchies and structures but also about the internal politics that prevails in them. Understanding and assessing an organization from this perspective is important to know its current activities and predict its behaviour.

d. Organization as culture: The organizational cultural perspective states that many organizational behaviour and decisions are predetermined by the pattern of basic assumptions (beliefs, rituals, values) held by the members of an organizations. Different studies suggested that, organizational culture acts as powerful forces in influencing organizational life.

e. Organization as a learning system: From this perspective organization is describe as a living and thinking open system. Organization continuously learn from their history, experience and environment and adjust accordingly .To be an effective, organization have to learn and develop new capabilities on a continuous basis. Sharing knowledge, experience and ideas is habit of learning organization. Thus, learning competency of organization plays an important role in strategic planning process.

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