Secondary Principles of Scientific Management - Principle of Management

Principle of Management

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Secondary Principles of Scientific Management

Secondary Principles of Scientific Management:

Standardization of Tools and Equipments: Another principle of scientific management is the standardization of tools and equipments. it is essential for the improvement of quality of products and also for bringing about uniformity in the production of standard goods. As a matter of fact, standardization should be maintained in respect of tools, equipments, materials, period of work, working conditions, amount of work, cost of production etc.

Scientific Selection and Training of Workers: Scientific management requires a radical change in the selection and training or workers. They must be selected on a scientific basis. The old traditional and absolute methods of selection of workers have to be replaced by the scientific and modern methods. Taylor suggested that the workers should be selected on scientific basis taking into account their educational background, health, work experience, aptitude, physical, strength and I.Q. etc. Further, proper training by qualified persons should be given according to their capabilities and nature of work.

Experimentation and Scientific Investigation: The success of scientific management depends upon experimentation and investigation. It involves analytical study, observation research, experimentation and investigation. It is only through constant experimentation and scientific investigation that one can find out the best and most efficient methods of doing a work. It has been rightly said that experimentation and investigation is the life-blood of scientific management.

Incentive Wage System: Taylor for the first time advocated an incentive wage system in the form of differential piece wages instead of time wages. Under differential piece system two wage rates are prescribed, i.e. one lower and the other higher. Those who are unable to perform standard work within standard time are paid wages at lower rate per unit. On the contrary, those who attain standard or even more within the standard time are paid wages at higher rate per unit. Thus, there is considerable difference in wages between those who attain and those who do not attain standards.

Scientific Allotment of Task: Another important principle of scientific management is the scientific allotment of task. Every job must be entrusted to the best available man according to his aptitude and training for that specific job. As a matter of fact, every person, however efficient he may be, cannot perform all the jobs efficiently. One has to carefully fit "the man to the job", and "the job to the man". The principle of 'right job to the right person' should be implemented. A worker may perform his task most efficiently provided it suits his inclination aptitude taste and capability.

  • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: The Gilbreth used motion picture films to study hand and body motions. Their concern was on “economy of movement “They emphasized on the use of technique and methods to help workers in developing their fullest potential trough training ,improved tools ,working environment and standardize work method.
  • Willing H Leffingwell: Leffingwell developed five principles of effective work. They are: - i) planning at work ii) scheduling the work iii) executing the work iv) measuring the work and v) rewarding the workers.
  • Henry L Gantt: Gant refined the production control and cost control techniques. Gantt invent a technique of scheduling work which is also called Gantt Chart. He was the first theorist to suggest management to pay attention to service rather than profits.
  • Harrington Emerson: Emerson not only focuses on efficiency and productivity of work but, on the overall objectives cost accounting and the function of staff department.

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