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Pond Ecosystem Components : Producers, Consumers and Decomposers

Biota and Environment

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Pond Ecosystem Components : Producers, Consumers and Decomposers

Pond Ecosystem Components : Producers, Consumers and Decomposers

Pond Ecosystem:

The pond is a small body of standing water and the pond ecosystem is complex interactions between its biotic and abiotic components.

Pond Ecosystem

Abiotic component of pond ecosystem are:

  • Environmental factors: light, temperature, water
  • The edaphic factors: Soil
  • Inorganic Components are: O2, CO2, N2, nitrates, phosphates, carbonates etc. Organic components are: carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, fats, nucleic acids

Biotic components are:


The producers are the aquatic green plants, which may be divided into two groups.

  • Microphytes (phytoplanktons): They are microscopic autotrophs, which fix solar energy. eg. Spirogyra, Zygnema, Volvox, Oedogonium.
  • Macrophytes: They are large plants, which manufacture complex food. They are of following types
  • Submerged plants: those, which are submerged in water, are submerged plants eg Hydrilla and Utricularia
  • Floating plants: those, which float freely in water surface, are called floating plants eg. Pistia, Nymphea and Azolla Immerged plants: those, which are rooted but emergent, are called immerged plants eg Ranunculus, Sagittaria and Typha


The consumers are those heterotrophic organisms, which consume producers as food. They are also following types Primary consumers: These herbivorous animals depend upon autotrophic organisms such as microscopic plant eaters or zooplanktons, Mollusks, Beetles, Cyclops, and Daphnia etc.

  • Secondary consumers: These are primary carnivores, which depend upon herbivorous animals for food eg. Insects, fishes, frogs, crab etc.
  • Tertiary consumers: These are second grade of carnivores. They feed upon plants or animals (secondary consumer) therefore are called omnivores. for eg. Large fishes and frogs.
  • Top consumers: These are third grade of carnivores, which feed upon primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers eg. Water snake, water birds etc.


These include heterotrophic microorganisms such as bacteria fungi, which break down the organic complex food from dead producers and consumers into simple inorganic compounds made available to the producers.

  • Pond stratification: On the basis of water depth, light penetration and types of vegetation and animals there may be three zones
  • Littoral zone: This is the shallow water region, which is usually occupied by rooted plants. This region is warmer and rich in oxygen. In this region, there is high intensity of light penetration so called epolomentic zone
  • Limnetic Zone: this is the central part of pond upto where there is the penetration of effective light water level, oxygen content and tem[perature varies time to time in this zone. here the light penetration is lesser so called thermocline.
  • Profundal Zone: This is the deep-water region where the re is no effective light penetration. There the microscopic plants and decomposers are present. So called Hypolimnion


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