Nuclear Reaction - Introduction and Types | Chemistry Grade XI

Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Reaction - Introduction and Types | Chemistry Grade XI

Nuclear Reaction - Introduction and Types

Nuclear Reaction
The process of splitting heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei or combination of lighter nuclei to give heavy nucleus with the release of tremendous amount of energy is termed as nuclear reaction.
 
According to the theory of nuclear reaction, the target nuclei absorb projectile and forms unstable compound nuclei which further break up to give new nuclei.
1327Al + 11H -------------> [1428Si] ------------------>1224Mg + 24He

TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTION

1. Nuclear Fission
The nuclear reaction in which heavy nuclei split into lighter nuclei with the release of a tremendous amount of energy is called nuclear fission.
92235U + 01n ---------------> 56141Ba + 3692Kr + 3 01n

There are two types of nuclear fission:

a. Control nuclear fission: The nuclear fission which is controlled by using moderators like graphite or heavy water which captures the neutron that releases during the reaction so that the energy produced can be converted into commercial power like electricity is called nuclear fission.

b. Uncontrol nuclear fission: The nuclear reaction in which the neutron release bombard the target nuclei to cause further nuclear fission which evolves a huge amount of energy and produces an explosion and causes the destruction is called  uncontrol nuclear reaction. This principle is used to make the atom bomb.

2. Nuclear Fusion
The nuclear reaction in which lighter nuclei combine together to form lighter nucleus with the release of tremendous amount of energy is called nuclear fusion.
12H + 12H ---------------> 24He + energy
13H +12H ----------------> 24He + 24He + 04n + energy
13H + 13H ----------------> 24He + 2 01n + energy
 
3. Capture Reaction
The nuclear reaction in which the projectile is absorbed by target nucleus and gives new nuclei. In this case, ɤ-rays are produced.
612C + 11H ----------------> 713N + ɤ-rays
92238U + 01n ---------------> 92239U + ɤ-rays
 
4. Particle- Particle Reaction
The nuclear reaction in which projectile is absorbed by target nucleus to give compound nucleus which further breakdown to give product nuclei.
1327Al + 11H ----> [ 1428Si ] (Unstable compound nuclei) ----> 1224Mg + 24He                           

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