# Introduction to Thermodynamics | Physics Grade XI

### Thermodynamics

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# Introduction to Thermodynamics

Introduction
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of the phenomenon involving heat, mechanical work, and other aspects of energy and energy transfer.

Thermodynamic system
A thermodynamic system is an assembly of extremely large number of particles, atoms or molecules having a certain pressure volume or temperature. It may be a close or an isolated system. In an isolated system no het from the outside surround can enter in the system or leave the system towards surrounding whereas the closed system is the thermodynamic system in which heat exchange exists between the system and the surroundings.

Thermal Equilibrium
A thermodynamic system is in thermal equilibrium if the temperature of all parts of the system is same. So, a system in thermal equilibrium does not exchange heat between its different parts or with surroundings.

Work Done
Work done by the force on a system is displaced through a distance. Work is measured by the product of force and displacement in the direction of force. For example: if a gas enclose in a cylinder expands, it pushes the boundary of cylinder outwards and the piston moves outwards. Such work done by the gas on its surrounding is taken as positive. While the work done by the system on compressing the gas is taken as negative.

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