Family Liguminosae – Description in Semi-Technical Terms

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Pea-plant-family-LiguminosaeBiology | Botany Notes
Family – Liguminosae
General Description in Semi-Technical Terms
For: Science Class 11

Family : Liguminosae | Sub family: Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae is also known as pea family. There are about 600 genera and 1300 species. Widely distributed,abundant in trophical to temperate region. Some economically important members are:

Pisum sativum, PEA – important pulse (DAL)
Phaseolus vulgaris, BODI – important pulse (DAL)
Vicia faba, BAKULLA – important pulse (DAL)
Gycine max, BHATMAS – – important pulse (DAL)
Arachis hypogea, BADAM – Important for oil and nut
Cicer arientum, GRAM – – important pulse (DAL)
Cajanus cajan, ARHAR – important pulse (DAL)
Delbergia sisso, SISSOO – Important timber
Lens culinaris, MASURO – important pulse (DAL)

Habit / Habitat: Annual herbs or perennial shrubs or trees, some are climbers, cultivated or wild, usually mesophytic.
Root: Tap root and branched, root nodules are present which is important for nitrogen fixation.
Stem: Erect or prostrate or climbing, herbaceous or woody (Dalbergia sissoo), branched, angular or cylindrical, solid or fistular, glabrous, green.
Leaf: Stipulate, cauline and ramal, simple or compound, pinnately compound, modified into tendrils, alternate or opposite or sometimes whorled, ovate, entire, acute or mucronate, glabrous, green or glaucous, unicostate, reticulate venation.
Inflorescece: Racemose, receme or panicle or spike or solitary
Flower: bracteate or ebracteate, ebractiolate, pedicellate, complete, zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, pentamerous, papilionaceous, hypogynous or perigynous, white or pink in colour
Calyx: sepals – 5, gamosepalous, toothed or bilabiate, sepaloid, campanulate, valvet or imbricate aestivation.
Corolla: Petals – 5, polypetalous, petaloid, papilionaceous, one petal large, two medium and two small, fused called keels, vexillary aestivation.
Androecium: Stamens – 10, diadelphous or monoadelphous, rarely polyandrous. Anther: bilobed or dithecous, basifixed or dorsifixed, intorse.
Gynoecium: Carpel – 1, monocarpellary. Ovary: superior, unilocular, marginal placentation. Style – curved. Stigma – capitate or hairy.
Fruit: Legume or pod
Seed: Dicotledonous and non endospermic.
Floral formula :

Floral formula of Liguminosae

Floral diagram :

Floral diagrams Liguminosae

Systemic Position :
Class : Dicotledonae
—— Sub Class : Polypetalae
———–Series : Calciflorae
—————Order : Rosales
——————–Family : Leguminosae
————————Sub Family : Papilionaceae
Diagnostic characters
Leaves – stipulate, alternate or opposite, simple or compound. Inflorescence racemose, Flower – pentamerous, zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, papilionaceous, hypogynous or perigynous. Sepals – 5, gamosepalous, Petals 5, polypetalous, papilionaceous, Stamens – 10, diadelphous, Carpel – 1, monocarpellary, Fruit legume or pod.

Posted By : Hari Prasad Chaudhary | Comment RSS | Category : Class XI, HSEB Notes
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