Hybridization: Condition and Characteristics – Shape of Molecules

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ChemistryReference Notes | Science
Hybridization: Condition and Characteristics
Unit: Chemical Bonding and Shape of Molecules
Chemistry Class 12

The concept of hybridization was introduced in the simple valence bond theory by Linus pauling in the year 1931. The mixture and recombination of bond orbitals of the same atom to form orbitals equal in number, identical in shape and energies is called hybrid orbitals and the process is called hybridization.

Conditions for hybridization:

  1. Only the orbital present in the valency shell gets hybridized.
  2. The energy difference between orbital undergoing hybridization should be small.
  3. The electron waves in hybrid orbitals repel each other and thus tend to be far apart.
  4. Hybridization takes place at the time of bond formation only.
  5. It is the orbital that udergo hybridization and not the electrons.

Characteristics of hybridization:

  1. The number of hybridized orbital is equal to the number of orbital being hybridized.
  2. The hybrid orbitals are identical in shape and have equivalent energy.
  3. The hybrid orbitals are more effective in forming stable bonds than pure ones.
  4. The type of hybridization indicates the geometry of the molecule.

Depending upon the number and types of orbital (s & p) involved, hybridization is of following types.

  1. sp – hybridization
  2. sp2 – hybridization
  3. sp3 – hybridization

Questions for practice:

  1. Define hybridization. [HSEB 2063]
  2. What are the conditions for hybridization?
  3. What are the characteristics of hybridization?
  4. What do you mean by sp hybridization, using any example, explain the molecular geometry involved.
  5. Draw the shape of sp-hybrid orbital. [HSEB 2056]

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