Tissue or Organ Transplantation and Its Types | Biology Class 12

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Heart TransplantationZoology | Biology Notes
Tissue or Organ Transplantation
For: Science Class 12

Tissue transplantation is the process of replacing non-functional, damaged or lost body part with functional ones. It is carried out only when the survival of the patient is at danger. The most successful transplantation is one where tissue is taken from one place of person’s body and moved to another place in the same such as skin grafting from the thigh to replace burn tissue of hand. The tissue or organ which gets transplanted is called graft. There are many examples of tissue or organ transplantation on human beings such as skin grafting, heart transplantation, kidney transplantation etc.

The process of transplanting the organs is called keratoplasty. One of the drawbacks of organ transplantation is rejection of transplanted organ by patient body. It is due to production of antibodies by patient’s immune system against the transplanted organ. This is reason for why success rate is low for organ transplantation. To decrease rejection rate the patient is given immunosuppressant medicine for normal functioning of transplanted organ.

Types of Transplantation

Depending on genetic relationship between donor and receiver, transplantation is of four types:

1. Autograft
When tissues from one area are transplanted to another area in same individual, then it is called Autograft. Skin grafting fro plastic surgery is an example. The success rate of this type is high and there is no problem of rejection.

2. Isograft
The tissue or organ transplantation between genetically similar individuals of a species is called Isograft. Kidney transplantation is an example and there is a chance of rejection.

3. Homograft (Allograft)
The transplantation of tissue or organ between genetically different individuals of a species is called allograft. Skin transplantation and blood transplantation from others are the examples.

4. Heterograft (xenograft)
The transplantation of tissue or organ between animals of different species is called heterograft or xenograft. This is a special case of transplantation which includes transplantation of baboon livers into humans. These types of transplantation are specially carried for research and experiment.

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